SSD Components

Solid State Drive or more commonly referred to as SSD is a component or latest data storage hardware that will replace Hard Disk.

Components of the Solid State Drive (SSD), namely:

Solid State Drive (SSD) components

1. Controller

The controller is an embedded processor that runs the firmware code. The controller is an important factor that will affect the performance of the SSD. The functions performed by the controller include Error correction (ECC), Wear leveling, Bad block mapping, Read scrubbing and read disturb management, Read and write caching, Garbage collection, Encryption. The controller on the SSD serves to bridge the NAND memory components on the SSD with the computer.

2. Flash memory-based 

Many large factories use non-volatile NAND flash memory as SSD fabrication material, because it is cheaper than DRAM and certainly able to retain data without continuous power supply and will guarantee data to remain presistent even if the power is suddenly dead. In terms of access speed, Flash Memory is slower than DRAM. MLC can store 4 states or states or 2 bits per memory cell, resulting in high density. Therefore it will also generate many errors. Lower data writing speed and higher power consumption but cheaper than SLC. SLC can store 2 state or state or 1 bit per memory cell, read speed and write data faster, low power consumption and high memory cell resistance, but SLC is more expensive.

3. DRAM-based

SSDs that use DRAM are intended to focus on ultra-speed data access. Usually SSDs that use DRAM will use internal batteries or AC / DC adapters and back-up storage systems to maintain data presistency as long as there is no power to the SSD. If the power goes out, then the battery provides power during copying data from RAM to back-up storage. When power is back on, information is copied back to RAM from back-up storage and SSD resumes the operation as well as Hibernate functionality in the operating system.

4. Cache or buffer

SSD Flash memory-based generally use DRAM small capacity as cache as in Hard disk. The frequently used data will remain in the cache as long as the drive is running. After no data operation will be lost. But an SSD controller factory, SandForce does not use DRAM cache in its design, but can still achieve high performance.
5. Battery (super capacitor)

Other components that improve SSD performance are capacitors or batteries. This is necessary to maintain data integrity so that the data in the cache can be copied to the drive when the power goes out. There are some that keep storing data in the cache until power is restored. Battery or super capasitor is needed by SSD with MLC flash memory because data is very vulnerable corrupt if power goes out, but for SSD with SLC type flash memory, corrupt data problem is absent, and most of them are not equipped with battery and super capacitor.


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